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We provide aquatic and environmental consulting and research services to the agricultural, industrial, mining, tourism and private sectors in South Africa and the rest of Africa. We conduct specialist assessments for scoping studies, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs),  Environmental Management Plans (EMPs), Water Use License Applications (WULAs), Section 24 G authorisations, biodiversity surveys and rehabilitation projects. Team members are also Research Associates at the University of Pretoria and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University and are currently leading research projects funded by the Water Research Commission and Coaltech.

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Aquatic Ecology


Using recognised biomonitoring techniques we evaluate the present ecological state of rivers based on surveys of macroinvertebrates (SASS5 and MIRAI), fish (FRAII), diatoms, riparian vegetation (VEGRAI) and in-stream and riparian habitat quality (IHAS and IHI). In addition we have extensive experience in diagnosing the cause of fish kills.

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Wetland Assessments


Wetland delineation and mapping and assessment of Present Ecological State (PES) and Ecological Importance and Sensitivity (EIS) using recognised methods. Wetlands practitioners have undergone accredited training courses and certification can be provided upon request.

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Water Quality


We assess the source, transport, fate and effects of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems and assess water quality through the design of monitoring programmes, water quality modelling, statistical analysis of monitoring data and the interpretation of water quality data against appropriate guidelines for recognised users.

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Ecological Risk Assessment


By integrating data on exposure (e.g. modelling and monitoring of environmental pollutant concentrations) and effects (ecotoxicological tests or analysis of toxicity data) we evaluate the possible impact of various agricultural, industrial, mining and other anthropogenic activities on the aquatic ecosystem.

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GIS Analysis & Mapping


Experience with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is integral to many of the services we offer. Through application of mapping and modelling techniques in GIS we are able to provide detailed spatial and temporal analyses of developmental, geographical, land use and land management impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

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Drone Surveys


Our licensed drone pilot is registered with the CAA of South Africa. We capture high resolution aerial photos and videos for several applications, including mapping, the production of georeferenced orthophotos, wetland delineation,  visual site surveys and inspections, volume and stockpile estimates, asset and infrastructure inspections and environmental compliance monitoring

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Other Services


We have built up an extensive network of reliable associates and collaborators through which we are able to provide additional services, including ornithology, botany, herpetology, entomology and mammology surveys; wetland delineation; hydrogeological assessments; geological assessments and submission of Water Use License Applications.



Often, characterising the biodiversity and ecological function of aquatic ecosystems, the threats to these systems and users of these systems as well as solutions to these threats requires a more rigorous, research orientated approach based on a sound scientific method. In this respect the directors at Confluent Environmental come from a strong research background. In addition to the variety of consulting services we offer, we are also currently leading the following research projects:

  • Can dung beetles improve post mining land-use options? ¦ Funder: Coaltech ¦ Collaborators: University of Pretoria
  • An Integrated Approach to Managing and Mitigating the Risk of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pesticide Pollution to the Aquatic Environment ¦ Funder: Water Research Commission ¦ Collaborators: Freshwater Research Centre, University of Pretoria, Agricultural Research Council
  • Aquatic biodiversity and ecology of ephemeral water bodies in the Kalahari ¦ Funder: E. Oppenheimer & Son.

We continue to seek and develop new research projects and collaborations and would welcome any enquiries in this regard.